Choice and Partnership approach adopted in UK child and adolescent mental health services.
More Information: www.capa.co.uk/
Therapists/authors from the Milan School of Family Therapy brought Curiosity to practice.
Article: Cecchin, G. (1987). Hypothesizing, Circularity, and Neutrality Revisited: An Invitation to Curiosity. Family Process, 26: 405–413. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1987.00405.x
Mary Ainsworth developed the Strange Situation Test to assess attachment security in children.
Download: The Ainsworth Strange Situation (PDF)
Developed by Conen and Pearce to differentiate and connect differently held meaning between individuals, families, communities and cultures using hierarchy to rank emphasis given to a certain aspects of life, beliefs and experience.
More Information: www.slideshare.net/dnlowry/coordinated-management-of-meaning-12607949
Book Chapter: Pearce, W. B. (2005). The Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) in W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing About Intercultural Communication, Part II: Theories of Communication Incorporating Culture (pp. 35-54). London: Sage Publications. View Content
Critical Realism is a philosophical concept influenced by Bhasker in the 1970’s and 1980’s, championed by David Pocock in Systemic Psychotherapy. Critical Realism demonstrates that realism and constructionism interplay at multiple levels to give a theoretical basis for eclectic yet informed therapeutic practice.
Article: Pocock, D. (2013). A philosophy of practice for systemic psychotherapy: the case for critical realism. Journal of Family Therapy. doi: 10.1111/1467-6427.12027
“Epigenetic inheritance adds another dimension to the modern picture of evolution. The genome changes slowly, through the processes of random mutation and natural selection. It takes many generations for a genetic trait to become common in a population. The epigenome, on the other hand, can change rapidly in response to signals from the environment. And epigenetic changes can happen in many individuals at once. Through epigenetic inheritance, some of the experiences of the parents may pass to future generations. At the same time, the epigenome remains flexible as environmental conditions continue to change. Epigenetic inheritance may allow an organism to continually adjust its gene expression to fit its environment – without changing its DNA code.” University of Utah
John Byng-Hall pioneered the idea that, through the influence of inter-generational patterns, family scripts and attachment relationships are either replicated or corrected, both rigidly leaving families little room for reflection and adaptation to change. A healthier position to strive for within systemic family therapy is an improvised script, where families flexibly approach unique situations, retaining the better adaptive patterns from earlier family generations and integrating new coping mechanisms where needed, gives more scope for families to successfully adapt to challenges.
Article: Byng-Hall, J. (1985). The family script: a useful bridge between theory and practice. Journal of Family Therapy, 7: 301–305. doi: 10.1046/j..1985.00688.x
Family sculpts are a type of dramatic activity or psychodrama used in family therapy sessions. The family member, if ready, may play his or her own role in the drama and choose others to assume the roles of others involved in the event. The therapist provides emotional support and may even play a role in the drama.
A genogram is a family tree diagram that maps family relationships and patterns across at least three generations. It represents the viewpoint of its creator, called the “index person” who might be a therapist or family member. Therapists use genograms to gain an overview of family relationships. There are basic genogram components and codes that facilitate genogram construction and convey meaning.
More Information: pro.psychcentral.com/genograms-what-they-are-how-to-do-them/
John Burnham and colleagues developed the acronym Social Graces to represent aspects of difference in beliefs, power and lifestyle, visible and invisible, voiced and unvoiced, to which we might pay attention in therapy and in supervision. The Social Graces have grown since their original development and currently represent: Gender, Geography, Race, Religion, Age, Ability, Appearance, Class, Culture, Ethnicity, Education, Employment, Sexuality, Sexual Orientation, Spirituality.
Articles: Burnham, J. (2013). Developments in Social GGRRAAACCEEESSS: visible-invisible, voiced-unvoiced. In I. Krause (Ed.), Cultural Reflexivity. London: Karnac.
Divac, A., & Heaphy, G. (2005). Space for GRRAACCES: training for cultural competence in supervision. Journal of Family Therapy, 27: 280–284. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2005.00318.x
The book was first published in 1985 as Integrated Family Therapy: A Problem-Centred Psychodynamic Approach, by David Will and Robert M. Wrate, Tavistock Publications, London. View WorldCat entry. In 2014, a new edition of this book was made available on this website and in eBook formats as Integrated Family Therapy: A Paramodern Position by Lisa Miller and Robert M. Wrate.
This concept, when used within structural family therapy, posits that we draw on the same stance of respect, collaboration and consideration when meeting with families, individuals, professional networks and in supervision and training.
More Information: www.springerreference.com/docs/html/chapterdbid/3524.html
Formulating questions covering a broad range of positions, from relational to context to future orientated, Tomm introduced curiosity, difference and hope for change into family therapy through this medium.
More Information: www.familytherapy.org/documents/IntimacyQuestioning.pdf
Article: Tomm, K. (1987). Interventive Interviewing: Part 11. Reflexive Questioning as a Means to Self-Healing. Family Process, 26: 167-183.
Transitions throughout the life cycle present challenges for all families when roles, relationships and involvement change according to developmental stages, either bringing greater closeness or greater distance. For some families, this adjustment is met with particular difficulty and is a central consideration for family therapy.
Monica McGoldrick has taken a lead in bringing this to systemic family therapy’s attention.
More Information: www.psychotherapy.net/interview/monica-mcgoldrick
Originally developed to treat borderline personality disorder but now more broadly accepted as a useful intervention within systemic family therapy, mentalisation-based treatment is a time-limited and structured approach that assists with emotional regulation.
Article: Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2010), Mentalization-based treatment for borderline personality disorder. World Psychiatry 9(1): 11-15.
Understanding isomorphic patterns and the contexts in which they manifest are at the heart of structural family therapy. Minuchin and colleagues have been developing this model since the early 1980’s.
More Information: www.minuchincenter.org/structural_family_therapy
Pioneered by Michael White and David Epston, drawing on the work of Foucault to positioning stories, conversation and language as central to change in therapy.
More Information: www.dulwichcentre.com.au/articles-about-narrative-therapy.html
Dr Dan Siegel has been at the forefront of applying research from neuroscience into psychotherapy in understandable and accessible ways.
More Information: www.mindsightinstitute.com
Dr Bruce Perry has also taken a lead in applying neuroscience to practice, more specifically in relation to childhood trauma.
More Information: www.childtraumaacademy.com
The RDoC research framework is visualized as a matrix with rows for specific dimensions of functioning (called “Constructs”) and columns for classes of variables or units of analysis used to study the constructs. Seven classes have been specified: genes; molecules; cells; neural circuits; physiology (e.g. heart rate, startle reflex); behaviours; and self-reports.
More Information: www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc.shtml
Beside and beyond postmodernism to include ‘real’ and scientific influences interacting with socially constructed aspects of family functioning. Paramodernism is curious about what is inside and outside of a family at multiple levels.
Download: Larner, Glenn. Para-Modern Family Therapy: Deconstructing Post-Modernism (PDF)
Peter Rober’s idea of therapists’ inner conversations draws on the experiencing, in-the-room and in-the-moment self and the consulting self, bringing together emotional experience, associated memories elicited, the theoretical knowledge held and the professional role held.
More Information: users.skynet.be/rober/
The Reflecting Team was developed by Tom Andersen as a way of providing feedback and observations and assisting to develop new insights for families in therapy in a respectful, open and transparent manner.
Article: Andersen, T. (1987). The Reflecting Team: Dialogue and Meta-Dialogue in Clinical Work. Family Process, 26: 415–428. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1987.00415.x
Strengths-based family therapy and resilience, starting with Minuchin, has since been substantially developed by Froma Walsh in this field.
Article: Walsh, F. (2003). Family Resilience: A Framework for Clinical Practice. Family Process, 42: 1–18. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2003.00001.x
Developed by Barry Mason to explore how risk and change can be managed within therapy, supervision and training.
Article: Mason, B. (1993). Towards Positions of Safe Uncertainty. Human Systems: Journal of Therapy, Consultation and Training, 4(3-4).
Interview: Hardham, V. (2006). Bridges to Safe Uncertainty: An Interview with Barry Mason. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 27: 16–21. doi: 10.1002/j.1467-8438.2006.tb00687.x
Questionnaires of varying lengths undertaken with families to assess family functioning and monitor change, developed by Peter Statton and also by Alan Carr.
More Information: http://www.aft.org.uk/about/view/score.html
Steve de Shazer brought ideas from the MRI school of Family Therapy to develop this model, based on constructivist theory. The past is given much less weight than the future, where strengths, hope and constructing preferred realities form the central thrust for change.
More Information: www.burtbertram.com/teaching/family/010-Family_Systems-SOLUTION-FOCUSED.pdf
A psychodynamic term for either lack of early childhood developmental integration of experience and emotion within the internal memory systems, a result of childhood trauma and neglect. Or for splitting off unbearable memory and emotional experience from consciousness in later childhood, adolescence or adulthood, a shattering experience to the psyche.
Article: Pellegrini, D. W. (2010). Splitting and projection: drawing on psychodynamics in educational psychology practice. Educational Psychology in Practice, 26(3).
Session and Outcome Rating Scales (SRS and ORS) have been developed by Scott Miller to improve families’ feedback to therapists in a timely way so that engagement and change can be closely monitored, reducing disengagement from misattuned intervention or misunderstanding of therapy goals.
Article: Miller, S. D., & Bargmann, S. (2012). The Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS). Integrating Science and Practice, 2012(2): 28-31.
Article: Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2005), Causal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: from common simple deficits to multiple developmental pathways. Biological Psychiatry 57(11): 1231-8.
View Abstract: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15949993
An overarching term describing the interconnectivity and interdependence of parts within a system, such as the relational connecting of family members, or of members of an organisation. The term can equally be applied at micro and macro levels: the interconnectivity of neurons at a micro level or at a macro level, the interconnectivity of aspects of culture within society. In systemic theory, changes in one part of a system result in a shift, in some way, of other parts. Thus change within a family can result from changes in any one or more parts of the system and contexts (macro) within which that family functions. A therapist meeting with a family therefore automatically brings a shift in the system in some way. The therapist cannot be seen as separate to the system and therefore cannot be objective.
An approach to broadening out the detail for mutual understanding between different professional groups within systemic family therapy.
Article: Speed, B. (2004). All aboard in the NHS: collaborating with colleagues who use different approaches. Journal of Family Therapy, 26: 260–279. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6427.2004.00282.x